Publications

2020-present

  • Pétré, M.-A., Genereux, D.P., Koropeckyj-Cox, L., Knappe, D.R.U., Duboscq, S., Gilmore, T.E., & Hopkins, Z.R. “Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Transport from Groundwater to Streams near a PFAS Manufacturing Facility in North Carolina, USA.” Environmental Science & Technology, 55(9): 5848–5856, 2021 (Abstract).
  • Zhi, Y., Call, D. F., Grieger, K. D., Duckworth, O. W., Jones, J. L., and Knappe, D.R.U. (2021). “Influence of Natural Organic Matter and pH on Phosphate Removal by and Filterable Lanthanum Release from Lanthanum-Modified Bentonite.” Water Research, 117399, 2021 (Abstract).
  • Kwiatkowski, C.F., Andrews, D.Q., Birnbaum, L.S., Bruton, T.A., DeWitt, J.C., Knappe, D.R.U., Maffini, M.V, Miller, M.F., Pelch, K.E., Reade, A., Soehl, A., Trier, X., Venier, M., Wagner, C.C., Wang, Z., & Blum, A. Response to “Comment on Scientific Basis for Managing PFAS as a Chemical Class.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 8(2): 195-197, 2021. (Full response)
  • Kearns, J., Dickenson, E., Aung, M.T., Joseph, S.M., Summers, R.S., and Knappe, D. “Biochar Water Treatment for Control of Organic Micropollutants with UVA Surrogate Monitoring.” Environmental Engineering Science, 38(5): 298-309, 2021 (Full manuscript).
  • Kotlarz, N., McCord, J., Collier, D., Lea, C. S., Strynar, M., Lindstrom, A. B., Wilkie, A. A., Islam, J. Y., Matney, K., Tarte, P., Polera, M. E., Burdette, K., DeWitt, J., May, K., Smart, R. C., Knappe, D.R.U., & Hoppin, J. A. “Measurement of Novel, Drinking Water-Associated PFAS in Blood from Adults and Children in Wilmington, North Carolina.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 128(7), 77005. (Full Manuscript)
  • Kwiatkowski, C.F., Andrews, D.Q., Birnbaum, L.S., Bruton, T.A., DeWitt, J.C., Knappe, D.R.U., Maffini, M.V, Miller, M.F., Pelch, K.E., Reade, A., Soehl, A., Trier, X., Venier, M., Wagner, C.C., Wang, Z., & Blum, A. “Scientific Basis for Managing PFAS as a Chemical Class.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 7(8): 532-543, 2020. (Abstract)
  • Herkert, N.J., Merrill, J., Peters, C., Bollinger, D., Zhang, S., Hoffman, K., Ferguson, P.L., Knappe, D.R.U., and Stapleton, H.M. “Assessing the Effectiveness of Point-of-Use Residential Drinking Water Filters for Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs).”
  • Zhang, C., Maness, J.C., Cuthbertson, A.A., Kimura, S.Y., Liberatore, H.K., Richardson, S.D., Stanford, B.D., Sun, M., & Knappe, D.R.U. (2020). Treating water containing elevated bromide and iodide levels with granular activated carbon and free chlorine: impacts on disinfection byproduct formation and calculated toxicity. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 6: 3460-3475, 2020. (Abstract)
  • Dodds, J.N., Alexander, N.L.M., Kirkwood, K.I., Foste, M.R., Hopkins, Z.R., Knappe, D.R.U., and Baker, E.S. From Pesticides to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: An Evaluation of Recent Targeted and Untargeted Mass Spectrometry Methods for Xenobiotics. Analytical Chemistry
  • Zhi, Y., Zhang, C., Hjorth, R., Baun, A., Duckworth, O. W., Call, D. F., Knappe, D.R.U., Jones, J. L., and Grieger, K. “Emerging lanthanum (III)-containing materials for phosphate removal from water: A review towards future developments.” Environment International, 145, 106115, 2020. (Full Manuscript)
  • Merle, T., Knappe, D.R.U., Pronk, W., Vogler, B., Hollender, J., and von Gunten, U. “Assessment of the breakthrough of micropollutants in full-scale granular activated carbon adsorbers by rapid small-scale column tests and a novel pilot-scale sampling approach.” Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 6: 2742-2751, 2020. (Abstract)
  • Rodowa, A.E., Knappe, D.R.U., Chiang, S.Y.D., Pohlmann, D., Varley, C., Bodour, A. and Field, J.A. “Pilot-Scale Removal of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Precursors from AFFF-Impacted Groundwater by Granular Activated Carbon.” Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 6(4): 1083-1094, 2020. (Abstract)
  • Dodds, J.N., Hopkins, Z.R., Knappe, D.R.U., and Baker, E.S. “Rapid Characterization of Per-and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) by Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry (IMS-MS).” Analytical Chemistry
  • Kearns, J. Dickenson, E., and Knappe, D. “Enabling Organic Micropollutant Removal from Water by Full-Scale Biochar and Activated Carbon Adsorbers Using Predictions from Bench-Scale Column Data.” Environmental Engineering Science, 37(7): 459-471, 2020. (Abstract)
  • Hosseini, P., Alhomair, S., Faeli, Z., Pour-Ghaz, M., Gabr, M., Knappe, D., and Parker, C. “Degradation Model for the Tensile Strength of PVC and Rubber Gasket Materials Exposed to Benzene and PCE-Saturated Aqueous Solutions.” Transportation Research Record 2674(2): 274-283, 2020. (Abstract)
  • Guillette, T.C., McCord, J., Guillette, M., Polera, M.E., Rachels, K.T., Morgeson, C., Kotlarz, N., Knappe, D.R.U., Reading, B.J., Strynar, M., and Belcher, S.M. “Elevated levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in Cape Fear River Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) are associated with biomarkers of altered immune and liver function.” Environment International, 136, 105358, 2020. (Abstract)

2015-2019

  • Zhang, C., Hopkins, Z.R., McCord, J., Strynar, M., and Knappe, D.R.U. “Fate of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Ether Acids in the Total Oxidizable Precursor Assay and Implications on Analysis of Impacted Water.”
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  • Kearns, J.P., Shimabuku, K.K., Mahoney, R.B., Knappe, D.R.U., and Summers, R.S. “High Temperature Co-pyrolysis Thermal Air Activation Enhances Biochar Adsorption of Herbicides from Surface Water.” Environmental Engineering Science, 36(6): 710-723, 2019. (Abstract)
  • McElroy, A.C., Hyman, M.R., and Knappe, D.R.U. “1,4-Dioxane in drinking water: Emerging for forty years and still unregulated.” Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 7: 117-125, 2019 (invited). (Abstract)
  • Hopkins, Z.R., Sun, M., DeWitt, J.R., and Knappe, D.R.U. “Recently detected drinking water contaminants: GenX and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl ether acids.” Journal AWWA, 110(7): 13-28, 2018 (invited). (Abstract)
  • Cotton, C., J. Collins, D.R.U. Knappe, K. Linden, J. Brown, G. Upadhyaya, and P. Ponturo. Evaluation of cVOC Removal Efficiencies by Various Technologies. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2018. (Executive Summary)
  • Hess, B.J., P. Kolar, J.J. Classen, D. Knappe, and J.J. Cheng. “Evaluation of waste eggshells for adsorption of copper from water.” Transactions of the ASABE, 61(3), 967-976, 2018. (Abstract)
  • Kennedy, A.M., Reinert, A.R., Knappe, D.R.U., and Summers, R.S. “Prediction of Full-Scale GAC Adsorption of Organic Micropollutants.” Environmental Engineering Science, 34(7): 496-507, 2017. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U., Ingham, R.S., Moreno-Barbosa, J., Sun, M., Summers, R.S., and Dougherty, T. Evaluation of Henry’s Law Constants and Freundlich Adsorption Constants for VOCs. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2017. (Executive Summary)
  • Sun, M., Arevalo, E., Strynar, M.J., Lindstrom, A.B., Richardson, M., Kearns, B., Smith, C., Pickett, A., and Knappe, D.R.U. “Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are Important Drinking Water Contaminants in the Cape Fear River Watershed of North Carolina.” Environmental Science and Technology Letters, 3(12): 415-419, 2016. (Abstract)
  • Thompson, K.A.; Shimabuku, K.K.; Kearns, J.P.; Knappe, D.R.U.; Summers, R.S.; and Cook, S.M. “Environmental Comparison of Biochar and Activated Carbon for Tertiary Wastewater Treatment.” Environmental Science and Technology, 50(20): 11253–11262, 2016. (Abstract)
  • Sun, M., Lopez-Velandia, C., Knappe, D.R.U. “Determination of 1,4-dioxane in the Cape Fear River watershed by heated purge-and-trap preconcentration and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.” Environmental Science and Technology, 50(5): 2246–2254, 2016. (Abstract)
  • Chowdhury, Z., K.L. Porter, J. Collins, C. Francis, S. Sriboonlue, D. Cornwell, R. Brown, and D.R. U. Knappe. Survey of Existing VOC Treatment Installations. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2016. (Executive Summary)
  • Summers, R.S., D. Kempisty, T. Daugherty, and D. Knappe. Removal of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from drinking water via granular activated carbon treatment. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2015. (Final Report)
  • Kearns, J.P., Shimabuku, K.K., Mahoney, R.B., Knappe, D.R.U., and Summers, R.S. “Feasibility of Using Traditional Kiln Charcoals in Low-Cost Water Treatment: Role of Pyrolysis Conditions on 2,4-D Herbicide Adsorption.” Environmental Engineering Science, 32(11): 912-921, 2015. (Abstract)
  • Kearns, J.P., Shimabuku, K.K., Mahoney, R.B., Knappe, D.R.U., and Summers, R.S. “Meeting multiple water quality objectives through treatment using locally generated char: improving organoleptic properties and removing synthetic organic contaminants and disinfection by-products.” Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 5(3): 359-372, 2015. (Abstract)
  • Dudley, L.A., E.C. Arevalo, and D.R.U. Knappe. Removal of perfluoroalkyl substances by PAC adsorption and anion exchange. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2015. (Executive Summary)
  • Kennedy, A.M., A.M. Reinert, D.R.U. Knappe, I. Ferrer, and R.S. Summers. “Full- and pilot-scale GAC adsorption of organic micropollutants.” Water Research, 68: 238-248, 2015. (Abstract)

2010-2014

  • Kearns, J.P., Wellborn, L.S., Summers, R.S., and Knappe, D.R.U. “2,4-D adsorption to biochars: effect of preparation conditions on equilibrium adsorption capacity and comparison with literature data for activated carbons.” Water Research, 62: 20-28, 2014. (Abstract)
  • Lindsay, A., B. Byrns, W. King, A. Andhvarapou, J. Fields, D. Knappe, W. Fonteno, S. Shannon. “Fertilization of Radishes, Tomatoes, and Marigolds Using a Large-Volume Atmospheric Glow Discharge.” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 34(6): 1271-1290, 2014. (Abstract)
  • Kearns, J.P., Knappe, D.R.U., and Summers, R.S. “Synthetic organic water contaminants in developing communities: An overlooked challenge addressed by adsorption with locally generated char.” Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 4(3): 421-436, 2014. (Abstract)
  • Summers, R.S.; A.M. Kennedy; D.RU. Knappe; A.M. Reinert; M.E. Fotta; A.J. Mastropole; C.J. Corwin; and J. Roccaro. Evaluation of Available Scale-up Approaches for the Design of GAC Contactors. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2014. (Final Report)
  • Dunn, S.E. and D.R.U. Knappe. Disinfection By-Product Precursor and Micropollutant Removal by Powdered Activated Carbon. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2013. (Executive Summary)
  • Kovalova, L.; Knappe, D.R.U.; Lehnberg, K., Kazner, K., and Hollender, J. “Removal of highly polar micropollutants from wastewater by powdered activated carbon.” Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 20(6): 3607-3615, 2013. (Abstract)
  • Chen, Y.; D.R.U. Knappe; and M.A. Barlaz. “The Effect of Aging on the Bioavailability of Toluene Sorbed to Municipal Solid Waste Components.” Chemosphere, 90(2): 251-259, 2013. (Abstract)
  • Matsui, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Nakao, S.; Knappe, D.R.U.; and Matsushita, T. “Characteristics of Competitive Adsorption between 2‐Methylisoborneol and Natural Organic Matter on Superfine and Conventionally Sized Powdered Activated Carbons.” Water Research, 45(16): 4741-4749, 2012. (Abstract)
  • Saquing, J.M.; D.R.U. Knappe; and M.A. Barlaz. “Fate and Transport of Phenol in a Packed Bed Reactor Containing Simulated Solid Waste.” Waste Management, 32(2): 327-334, 2012. (Abstract)
  • Ducoste, J.J., D.R.U. Knappe; and S.M. Alpert. Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Modeling UV-Initiated Advanced Oxidation Processes. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2011. (Final Report)
  • Baeza, C. and D.R.U. Knappe. “Transformation kinetics of biochemically active compounds in low-pressure UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation processes.” Water Research, 2011 (Abstract)
  • Velten, S.; D.R.U. Knappe; J. Traber; H.P. Kaiser; U. von Gunten; M. Boller; and S. Meylan. “Characterization of natural organic matter adsorption in granular activated carbon adsorbers.” Water Research 45: 3951-3959, 2011. (Abstract)
  • Summers, R.S.; D.R.U. Knappe; and V.L. Snoeyink. “Chapter 14 – Adsorption of Organic Compounds.” In Water Quality and Treatment, 6th ed., J.K. Edzwald (Ed.), McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, 2011. (E-book at NCSU Library)
  • Saquing, J.M.; C. Saquing; D.R.U. Knappe; and M.A. Barlaz. “Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.” Environmental Science and Technology 44(16): 6396-6402, 2010. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U.; B. Yuncu; and Q. Deng. Removal of 2-Methylisoborneol and Geosmin by High-Silica Zeolites and Zeolite-Enhanced Ozonation. Water Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2010. (Executive Summary)
  • Saquing, J.M.; L.A. Mitchell; Wu, B.; T.B. Wagner; D.R.U. Knappe; and M.A. Barlaz. “Factors controlling alkylbenzene and tetrachloroethene desorption from municipal solid waste components.” Environmental Science and Technology 44(3): 1123-1129, 2010. (Abstract)
  • Alpert, S.M.; D.R.U. Knappe; and J.J. Ducoste. “Modeling the UV/hydrogen peroxide advanced oxidation process using computational fluid dynamics.” Water Research, 44(6): 1797-1808, 2010. (Abstract)

2005-2009

  • Rosenfeldt, E.J.; C. Baeza; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Application of a Flow Cytometry Method to Assess the Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water.” Journal AWWA, 101(10): 60-70, 2009. (Abstract)
  • Rossner, A.; S.A. Snyder; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Removal of an emerging contaminant mixture by alternative adsorbents.” Water Research, 43(15): 3787-3796, 2009. (Abstract)
  • Teuten, E.L.; J.M. Saquing; D.R.U. Knappe; M.A. Barlaz; S. Jonsson; A. Björn; S.J. Rowland; R.C. Thompson; T.S. Galloway; R. Yamashita; D. Ochi; Y. Watanuki; M.P. Zakaria; Y. Ogata; H. Hirai; S. Iwasa; K. Mizukawa; Y. Hagino; A. Imamura; M. Saha; and H. Takada. “Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife.” Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B, 364: 2027-2045, 2009. (Abstract)
  • Rossner, A. and D.R.U. Knappe. “MTBE adsorption kinetics on alternative adsorbents and packed bed adsorber performance.” Water Research, 42(8/9): 2287-2299, 2008. (Abstract)
  • Bartelt-Hunt, S.L.; D.R.U. Knappe; and M.A. Barlaz. “A review of chemical warfare agent simulants for the study of environmental behavior.” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 38(2): 112-136, 2008. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U.; A. Rossner; S.A. Snyder; and C. Strickland. Alternative Adsorbents for the Removal of Polar Organic Contaminants. American Water Works Association Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2007. (Executive Summary)
  • Bartelt-Hunt, S.L.; M.A. Barlaz; D.R.U. Knappe; and P. Kjeldsen. “Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals in Landfills.” Environmental Science and Technology, 40(13): 4219-4225, 2006. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U. “Chapter 9 – Surface Chemistry Effects in Activated Carbon Adsorption of Industrial Pollutants.” In Interface Science in Drinking Water Treatment – Theory and Applications, Newcombe, G. and Dixon, D. (Eds.), Academic Press: Oxford, UK, 2006. (In NCSU Library)
  • Chun, C.; A.A. Tayebali; and D.R.U. Knappe. “A Procedure to Quantify Organic Antistrip Additive in Asphalt Binders and Mixes.” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 34(4): 1-6, 2006. (Abstract)
  • Chun, C.; A.A. Tayebali; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Quantitative Determination of and Effect of Prolonged Heating on Amine-Based Antistrip Additive Contents in Asphalt Binders and Mixes.” Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 75, 2006.
  • Li, L.; P.A. Quinlivan; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Predicting Adsorption Isotherms for Aqueous Organic Micropollutants from Activated Carbon and Pollutant Properties.” Environmental Science and Technology, 39(9): 3393-3400, 2005. (Abstract)
  • Quinlivan, P.A.; L. Li; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Effects of Activated Carbon Characteristics on the Simultaneous Adsorption of Aqueous Organic Micropollutants and Natural Organic Matter.” Water Research, 39(8): 1663-1673, 2005. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U. and A.A. Rossner Campos. “Effectiveness of High-Silica Zeolites for the Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether from Natural Water.” Water Science and Technology – Water Supply, 5(5): 83-91, 2005. (Abstract)

2000-2004

  • Badruzzaman, M.; P.K. Westerhoff; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Intraparticle Diffusion and Adsorption of Arsenate onto Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH).” Water Research 38(18): 4002-4012, 2004. (Abstract)
  • Chen, L.; M.A. Nanny; D.R.U. Knappe; T.B. Wagner; and N. Ratasuk “Chemical Characterization and Sorption Capacity Measurements of Degraded Newsprint from a Landfill.” Environmental Science and Technology 38(13): 3542-3550, 2004. (Abstract)
  • Chen, Y.; D.R.U. Knappe; and M.A. Barlaz. “The Effect of Cellulose/Hemicellulose and Lignin on the Bioavailability of Toluene Sorbed to Waste Paper.” Environmental Science and Technology 38(13): 3731-3736, 2004. (Abstract)
  • Hepplewhite, C.; G. Newcombe; and D.R.U. Knappe. “NOM and MIB, who wins in the competition for activated carbon adsorption sites?” Water Science and Technology 49(9): 257-265, 2004. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U.; R.C. Belk; D.S. Briley; S.R. Gandy; N. Rastogi; A.H. Rike; H. Glasgow; E. Hannon; and W.D. Frazier. Algae Detection and Removal Strategies for Drinking Water Treatment Plants. American Water Works Association Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2004. (Executive Summary)
  • Knappe, D.R.U.; L. Li; P.A. Quinlivan; and T.B. Wagner. Effects of Activated Carbon Surface Chemistry and Pore Structure on the Adsorption of Trichloroethene and Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether from Natural Water. American Water Works Association Research Foundation: Denver, Colorado, 2003. (Executive Summary)
  • Newcombe, G.; J. Morrison; C. Hepplewhite; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Simultaneous Adsorption of MIB and NOM onto Activated Carbon: II. Competitive Effects.” Carbon, 40(12): 2147-2156, 2002. (Abstract)
  • Li, L.; P.A. Quinlivan; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Effects of Activated Carbon Surface Chemistry and Pore Structure on the Adsorption of Organic Contaminants from Aqueous Solution.” Carbon, 40(12): 2085-2100, 2002. (Abstract)
  • Matsui, Y.; D.R.U. Knappe; and Takagi, R. “Pesticide Adsorption by Granular Activated Carbon Adsorbers – 1. Effect of Natural Organic Matter Preloading on Removal Rates and Model Simplification.” Environmental Science and Technology, 36(15): 3426-3431, 2002. (Abstract)
  • Matsui, Y.; D.R.U. Knappe; K. Iwaki; and H. Ohira. “Pesticide Adsorption by Granular Activated Carbon Adsorbers – 2. Effects of Pesticide and Natural Organic Matter Characteristics on Pesticide Breakthrough Curves.” Environmental Science and Technology, 36(15): 3432-3438, 2002. (Abstract)
  • Briley, D.S. and D.R.U. Knappe. “Optimizing Ferric Sulfate Coagulation of Algae with Streaming Current Measurements.” Journal AWWA 94(2): 80-90, 2002. (Abstract)
  • Newcombe, G.; J. Morrison; C. Hepplewhite ; and D.R.U. Knappe. “In the (Adsorption) Competition between NOM and MIB, Who is the Winner and Why?” Water Science and Technology – Water Supply, 2(2): 59-67, 2002. (Abstract)
  • Wu, B.; C.M. Taylor; D.R.U. Knappe; M.A. Nanny; and M.A. Barlaz. “Factors Affecting Alkylbenzene Sorption to Municipal Solid Waste.” Environmental Science and Technology, 35(22): 4569-4576, 2001. (Abstract)
  • Jun, H.B.; Y.J. Lee; B.D. Lee; and D.R.U. Knappe. “Effectiveness of Coagulants and Coagulant Aids for the Removal of Filter-Clogging Synedra.” Aqua 50(3): 135-148, 2001. (Abstract)
  • Sanin, F.D.; D.R.U. Knappe; and M.A. Barlaz. “The Fate of Toluene, Acetone, and 1,2- Dichloroethane in a Laboratory-Scale Simulated Landfill.” Water Research 34(12): 3063- 3074, 2000. (Abstract)

Prior to 2000

  • Knappe, D.R.U.; V.L. Snoeyink; P.Roche; M.J. Prados; and M.M. Bourbigot. “Atrazine Removal by Preloaded GAC.” Journal AWWA 91(10): 97-109, 1999. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U.; Y. Matsui; V.L. Snoeyink; P. Roche; M.J. Prados; and M.M. Bourbigot. “Predicting The Capacity Of Powdered Activated Carbon For Trace Organic Compounds In Natural Waters.” Environmental Science and Technology 32(11): 1694-1699, 1998. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U.; V.L. Snoeyink; P. Roche; M.J. Prados; and M.M. Bourbigot. “The Effect of Preloading on Rapid Small-Scale Column Test Predictions of Atrazine Removal by GAC Adsorbers.” Water Research 31(11): 2899-2909, 1997. (Abstract)
  • Knappe, D.R.U.; V.L. Snoeyink; G. Dagois; and J.R. DeWolfe. “The Effect of Calcium on the Thermal Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon.” Journal AWWA 84(8): 73-80, 1992. (Abstract)